Courses Catalogue

Physiology I Course

COURSE CODE: PHY 1208
COURSE CREDIT UNIT: 4
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME: Nursing Sciences (Direct Entry), B.Sc
COLLEGE/SCHOOL/FACULTY: School of Nursing Sciences
STATUS: Core
PROGRAMME TYPE: Undergraduate

Course Content and Outline

General introduction to physiology and Homeokinesis

HOMEOSTASIS (1hour)

a)      General introduction to physiology

b)      The concept of a controllable system

c)      How a controllable system works

d)      The concept and mechanisms of homeokinesis

e)      Examples of homeokinesis in the human body.

  THE CELL (1hour)

a) The cell theory

b)     Cell structure and organization

c)      Cell organelles and their functions

d)     the cell membrane structure and function

e)      Transport across the cell membrane

 CELL REPLICATION (1hour)

a)      The cell cycle

b)     Mitotic division

c)      Meiotic Division

d)     Growth, differentiation and specialization

 CELL CONNECTIVITY, SIGNALING AND COMMUNICAITON (1hour)

a)      Cell connectivity – Tight / gap junctions and desmosomes.

b)     Cell signaling – electrical and chemical

c)      Chemical Communication – receptor and 2nd messenger systems.

    THE NERVE CELL (1hour)

a)      Structure and functions of its parts.

b)      Myelination

c)      Resting transmembrane Potential Difference – ionic basis.

      THE CONCEPT OF EXCITABLE AND NON-EXCITABLE TISSUES (1hour)

a) The concept 

b) Action potential – generation, conduction, Transmission.

REFLEXES (1hour)

a)      Reflex arc

b)      Reflex activity

c)      Types and characteristics.

d)      Uses in the human body.

 THE SKELETAL MUSCLE CELLS (1hour)

a)      Structure

b)      Resting trans membrane Potential Difference – Ionic basis

c)      Action potential

d)      Excitation – contraction coupling 

e)      Contraction – relaxation cycle

f)       Energetics

SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE (1hour)

a)      The motor unit

b)      Cell types and their characteristics

c)      Arrangement of cells with respect to functions.

d)      Contraction – Isotonic / isometric

e)      The muscle spindle – structure and function.

      CARDIAC MUSCLE (1.5 hrs)

a) ‘P’ Cells

a)      Conducting cells, Spread of Impulse from sino-atrial node to ventricles.

b)      Ventricular cells

c)      Anatomic Arrangement of cardiac muscle(Syncytium)

d)      Functional Characteristic

e)      Innervations

f)       Impulse generation by ‘P’ Cells

g)      ECG tracing

   SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS (1hour)

a)      Structure 

b)      Resting trans membrane Potential Difference – ionic basis

c)      Action potential

d)      Excitation – Contraction coupling.

e)      Contraction – Relaxation cycle.

f)       Comparison with skeletal and cardiac muscles

g)      smooth muscle tissues Classifications, Locations, Single unit type characteristics.

   CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS (1hour)

a)      Loose

b)      Dense

c)      Cartilage

d)      Osseous (Bone).

SKIN (1hour)

a)      Structure

b)      Functional roles

c)      Skin appendages; Breast,Nails,Hair

FOUNDAITONS OF GENETICS (1hour)

a)      Chromosomes

b)      DNA

c)      The genetic code

d)      The gene

INHERITANCE (1hour)

a)      Mendel’s Laws of inheritance

b)      Mendelian inheritance

c)      Non-Mendelian inheritance.

BLOOOD AND OTHER BODY FLUIDS

 BODY FLUID GENERAL (1hour)

a)      Body composition

b)      Total Body Water (TBW)

c)      Fluid Compartments

 ESTIMATION OF FLUID COMPARTTMENT VOLUME (1hour)

a)  Principles of the indicator dilution Technique (IDT)

b)   Application of the IDT to estimate TBW and various compartments.

c)   osmolality compositions and fluid movement between compartments

i.  Osmolal Composition of fluid in various compartments. 

ii.    Movement of fluid between intravascular fluid (IVF) & External Environment.

iii.  Movement of fluid between IVF and interstitial fluid (ISF)

iv.  Movement of fluid between ISF and Intracellular Fluid (ICF)

  REGULATION OF EXTRA CELLULAR FLUID VOLUME (ECFV) (1.5 hrs)

a)  The controllable system (ECF)

b)  Disturbances (inputs)

c) Regulated parameters (outputs)

d)  Sensor

e)   Control centres

f)   Forcing functions

g)     regulation of hydrogen ion concentration [h+]

i.   Origin of Hydrogen ion (H+)

ii Relation between [H+] and PH

iii. The Need to regulate [H+]

iv.  Mechanisms that tend to alter the [H+]

v.    Mechanisms that minimize changes in [H+] (Buffers)

vi.             Removal of the buffered acids / bases from the body

  BLOOD – GENERAL ASPECTS (1hour)

a)      Blood volume

b)      Composition

c)      Plasma Constituents ad their uses.

 RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC) – FORMATION (1hour)

a)      At different stages of life.

b)      stages of formation

c)      Haematinics and their roles

d)      Effects of other substances

e)      Stages at which haemoglobin (Hb) is formed

f)       Release into the circulation

g)      Total Transit time and Factors, which may affect it.

    HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb) (0.5hr)

a)     Formation and structure

b)     Characteristics of HbA and HbF.

c)    Interaction with 2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate (2, 3-DPG)

d)  Oxidation / Reduction changes

e)     Normal Concentration Ranges for males and females 

f)    Uses

g)     RBC INDICES / RBC DESTRUCTION / BILIRUBIN METABOLISM (0.5 hr) i.      RBC indices

ii.    RBC destruction under physiological conditions.

iii.   Bilirubin Metabolism

iv.    Physiological Jaundice in Newborns.

       PLATELET FORMATION AND FUNCTIONS (1hour)

a)     Tissues in which platelets are formed 

b)      Stages of formation

c)    Size of granular megakaryocyte.

d)  Formations of platelets from megakaryocytes.

e)       Platelet Turnover

f)     Normal range of platelet counts in the circulation.

g)  Structure and characteristics of a platelet

h)     Maintenance of vascular Integrity.

i)          Haemostatic plug formation.

j)     Blood coagulation

k)     Clot formation and retraction.

HAEMOSTASIS (1hour)

a)      Maintenance of Vascular Integrity

b)      Minimization of blood loss from a damaged blood vessel.

c)      Clot formation

d)      Role of tissue tension and support 

e)      Limiting Coagulation process to site of vascular damage

f)       Fibrinolysis and vascular Endothelial Reconstruction.

    WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBC) (1hour)

a)      General – Types, Distinguishing characteristics.

b)      Granulocyte – types, formation and Functions

c)      Monocytes

d)      Lymphocytes.

    BLOOD GROUPS (1hour)

a)      The ABO Blood grouping system

b)      The LW (former Rhesus) Blood Grouping system

c)      The CDE Blood grouping system

d)      The confusion between Rhesus and CDE systems

e)      attempt at resolving the confusion

f)       Ot

  PRINCIPLES OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION (0.5hr)

a)      History of Blood transfusion

b)      Donor blood processing, preservation and storage

c)      Changes during storage

d)      Risks involved in blood transfusion

e)      Minimization of the risks.

f)       Complications of massive blood transfusion.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF HEART AND GREAT VESSELS (1hour)

a)      The chest cavity

b)      The pericardial space

c)      The four chambers of the heart

d)      The four valves of the heart

e)      The great vessels

f)       The myocardium

g)      The endocardium

  THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE HEART MUSCLE (1hour)

a)      Electrical characteristics of the heart muscle

b)      Cardiac muscle enervation and its effects

c)      Electrocardiogram (ECG) recording

d)      The physiological basis of ECG

      THE HEART AS THE PAIR OF MECHANICAL PUMPS IN SERIES (1hour)

a) The cardiac cycle events

b) Cardiac output regulation

 BLOOD PRESSURE (BP) (1hour)

a)      Physiological basis and parameters

b)      Factors, which determine Arterial BP

c)      Regulation of Arterial BP (ABP) (Short / long term)

d)      Variation of ABP with increasing age

e)      Estimation of ABP by the indirect methods

f)       Changes of BP in the various segments of the CVS

g)      The purpose BP serves in the body

      LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION (0.5 hr)

a)      Organization and functional Anatomy

b)      Mechanisms of formation of Lymph\

c)      Composition of Lymph

d)      Lymph flow

e)      Importance of the Lymphatic system

   REGULATION FO REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW (0.5 hr)

a)      Coronary

b)      Pulmonary

c)      Cerebral

d)      Skin

e)      Splanchnic

f)       Renal

g)      Skeletal muscle

CVS ADAPTIVE CHANGES DURING MUSCULAR EXERCISE (0.5hr)

a)      Increase in cardiac output.

b)      Fall in total peripheral Resistance (TPR)

c)      Increase in capillary fluid exchange

d)      Redistribution of blood to the various tissues

      FOETAL CIRCULATION AND NEONATAL CVS CHANGES (0.5 h r)

a) Foetal circulation

b)      Circulatory adjustments soon after birth

c)      Changes during the transitional period

d)      Consequences of failure of the changes to take place

  RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES (0.5 hr)

a)      Airways from nostrils to be alveoli

b)      Muscles of Respiration

c)      Structures in the chest wall

d)      Bronchal and pulmonary circulations

 MECHANISMS OF BREATHING (1hour)

a)      Lung Expansion and recoil

b)      Air flow mechanics

c)      Compliance of chest wall and lungs

d)      Work of breathing

e)      Effects of Airway tissues on inspired gas.

VENTILATION (1hour)

a)      Lung function parameters

b)      Pulmonary Ventilation

c)      Alveolar Ventilation

d)      Ventilation / Perfusion Relationships

ALVEOLAR GAS – PULMONARY CAPILLARY BLOOD GAS EXCHANGES (0.5 hr)

a)      Meaning of Diffusion Coefficients 

b)      Factors which affect gaseous diffusion through respiratory barrier

c)      Diffusion capacities of the respiratory barrier

d)      The gas diffusion process in the lungs

TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)  IN THE HUMAN BODY(1hour)

a)      Factors that govern oxygen uptake by the blood

b)      Contributions of different modes of transport of oxygen by blood

c)      The typical oxyhaemoglobin Association / Dissociation curve

d)      Factors that shift the curve to the left or two the right

e)      The Bohr Effect

f)       Oxygen Transfer from Blood to Tissue cell

g)      Hypoxia / cyanosis

h)      Movement of CO2 from tissue cells to blood

i)       Forms in which CO2 is transported by blood ii) Typical CO2 / Hb association / dissociation curve iii) The Haldane effect

iv) Transfer of CO2 from blood to alveolar gas

  REGULATION OF RESPIRATION (0.5 hr)

a)Mechanisms – In euphoea / during increased respiratory activity

bProtection of lungs against damage by over inflation

c)      Neural and chemical mechanisms that match ventilation to gaseous exchange demands

d)       RESPIRATORY CHANGES DURING MUSCULAR EXERCISE (0.5 hr)

i.   Increase in alveolar ventilation to match pulmonary perfusion

ii.  Changes in O2 transfer from alveolar gas to blood

iii.    Increase in O2 supply to the active tissue cells

iv.   Relationships between O2 consumption, work load and duration of exercise

v.  Causes and effects of oxygen debt and lactic acidosis

vi.     Changes that occur during recovery from effects of exercise

RESPIRATORY CHANGES DURING THE NEW- BORN PERIOD (0.5 hr)

a)      How the foetus at term obtains oxygen

 Importance of surfactant formation by the foetus near term

c)      Stimuli, which cause the first breath at birth

d)      Respiratory changes involved in establishment of normal reparation by newborn

e)      Respiratory functional parameters of the newborn

f)       Factors that may interfere with normal establishment of respiration

g)      Consequences of failure of newborn to establish normal respiration

RESPIRATION AT LOW AMBIENT PRESSURES E.G AT HIGH ALTITUDE/

RESPIRATION AT HIGH AMBIENT PRESSURES E.G UNDER WATER (1hour)

a)      Effects of increasing altitude on total ambient pressure

b)      PO2 of inspired air at various altitudes

c)      Altitudes up to which life is possible when breathing in unpressurized air or 100% oxygen

d)      Symptoms of acute mountain sickness/chronic maintain sickness

e)      Acclimatization to living at high altitude

f)       Problems of space flight and how effects of high altitude are overcome

g)      Pressures at which inspired gas should be when subject is at various depths under water and why

h)      Effects of inspiratory pressures on gas partial pressures

i)       Effect of high gas partial pressures on amount of gasses in tissue fluids

j)       Problems of nitrogen narcosis / oxygen toxicity

k)      Use of Helium as diluent for O2 instead of Nitrogen

l)       Timed stoppages at various depths when returning to surface

m)   Symptoms of decompression sickness e.g. bends and chokes

n)      Treatment of patient for decompression sickness

NON-RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS OF THE LUNGS (0.5 hr)

a)      Filter functions

b)      Defence functions

c)      As blood reservoir for left ventricle

d)      Metabolic function    

ENDOCRINOLOGY

HORMONE SECRETION, CHEMICAL NATURE & CLASSIFICATION (0.5 hr)

a)      Meaning of the terms “endocrine” and “hormone”

b)      Tissues which secrete hormones

c)      Chemical nature of hormones

d)      Classification according to their overall effects

REGULATION OF HORMONE SECRETION & MECHANISM OF ACTION (1hour)

a)      Regulation of hormone secretion

b)      Mechanisms of hormone action

HYPOTHALAMUS – ANTERIOR PITUITARY RELATIONSHIPS(1hour)

a)      The venous portal system

b)      Hypothalamic Hormones regulating anterior pituitary, secretion.

c)      Stimuli leading to their release

d)      Their effects of the anterior pituitary

e)      Regulation of their release

 HYPOTHALAMUS / ANTERIOR PITUITARY / LIVER COMPLEX(1hour)

a)      Hypothalamus – Secretion of GHRH/GHRIH (somatostatin) 

b)      Anterior Pituitary – Secretion of Growth Hormone

c)      Liver – formation of somatomedius

d)      Target cells for somatomedius and the effects

HYPOTHALAMUS / ANTERIOR PITUITARY / THYROID CELLS COMPLEX (1hour)

a)      Hypothalamus – Secretion of TRH

b)      Anterior pituitary – secretion of TSH

c)      Thyroid cells – secretion of T3 / T4.

d)      Target cells for T3/T4 and physiological Effects including feedback inhibition 

HYPOTHALAMUS/ANTERIOR PITUITARY / ADRENAL CORTEX COMPLEX (1hour)

a)      Hypothalamus – Secretion of CRN

b)      Anterior pituitary – secretion of ACTH

c)      Adrenal cortex – Secretion of glucocortcoids / sex hormones

d)      Target cells and physiological effects including feedback inhibition

THOSE INVOLVED IN BLOOD GLUCOSE HOMEOKINESIS (1hour)

a)      The “feasting” hormone-Insulin

b)      The fasting hormones

c)      Integrated hormonal control of blood glucose concentration

THOSE INVOLVED IN WATER HOMEOKINESIS (ADH & ANH) (1hour)

a)      Hypothalamus / posterior pituitary – ADH Secretion

b)      Target cells for ADH and physiological effects.

c)      Increase in blood volume – a trial myocytes – secretion of ANH.

d)      Target cells for ANH – physiological effects.

THOSE INVOLVED IN SODIUM / POTASSIUM HOMEOKINESIS (1hour)

a)      Macula Densa / Granular cells – Stimuli – Renin release

b)      Angiotensinogen – Angiotensin I

c)      Convertig enzyme – Angiotensin II formation

d)      Angiotensin II – Effects on thirst centre and blood vessels.

e)      Angiotensin II – zona glomerulosa – Aldosterone secretion.

f)       Aldosterone – Distal part of Nephron – Physiological effects.

THOSE INVOLVED IN CALCIUM / PHOSPHATE HOMEOKINESIS (1hour)

a)      Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) secretion and effects

b)      Vit. D metabolism – 1, 25 – (OH)2 CC – Effects

c)      Thyrocalcitonin Secretion – effects

d)      Integrated plasma calcium / phosphate homeokinesis

CATECHOLAMINES (1hour)

a)      Functional anatomy of adrenal medulla

b)      Catecholamine biosynthesis / storage / release

c)      Roles of catecholamines in normal body functioning

d)      Roles of catecholamines in emergency (fight-or-flee) situations

HORMONES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (1hour)

a)      Gastrin

b)      Cholecytokinin – pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)

c)      Secretin

d)      Others

OTHER HORMONES (1hour)

a)      Melanocyte stimulating Hormone (MSH)

b)      Erythropoietin

c)      Thymosin

d)      Others – Opioids / Melatonin / Indoles / Serotonin

LABORATORY PRACTICALS (9hrs)

a)      Blood grouping, HEMOSTASIS

b)      Red Blood cell Fragility test

c)      Red blood cell count

d)      White blood cell count

e)      Haemoglobin Concentration Estimation, ESR, PCV

f)       Vitalography

g)      Material Blood pressure measurement by Indirect Methods

h)      Electrocardiogram recording and Interpretation

 MODE OF DELIVERY

•       Lectures

•       Tutorials

•       Practicals 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND/OR EQUIPMENT

•       White boards / markers

•       Overhead Projects

•       LCD Machines with Laptop Computers.

Laboratory equipment