Courses Catalogue

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics

COURSE CODE: PCL 2202
COURSE CREDIT UNIT: 3
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME: Clinical Medicine and Community Health, Diploma
COLLEGE/SCHOOL/FACULTY: School of Allied Health Sciences
STATUS: Core
PROGRAMME TYPE: Undergraduate

Course Content and Outline

i) Cardiovascular drugs (6 Hours)

a)      Antihypertensive drugs. Diuretics, Vasodilators, ACE inhibitors, ATI, antagonists,- adrenoceptor blockers, adrenoceptor antagonists, calcium entry blockers and CNS active drugs, endothelia antagonists, end peptidase inhibitors.
b)      Isachaemic heart disease and its treatment, nitrates-adrenoreceptor blockers and calcium channel blockers.
c)      Lipid lowering drugs: statins, cholestryamine, nicotinic acid and ACAT inhibitors.
d)     Antiarrhythmic drugs. Class I-IV anti- arrhythmic drugs Sodium Channel blockers, Potassium Channel blockers such as amiodarone and sotalol, calcium entry blockers, digoxin, adenosine, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists.
e)      Heart failure: ACE inhibitors, I-blockers, adrenoceptor antagonists, inotropic agents and vasodilator drugs in the treatment antagonists.
f)       Anticoagulant therapy- warfarin, heparin, ximelagatran, Fibrin lytic mechanisms.
g)      Anti- platelet drugs and their use in vascular embolic disease.
h)      Treatment of aneamia (Hematopoietic agents)

ii) Dermatological drugs (2 Hours)
a)      Acne treatment, keratolytics, comedolytic, antibiotics, retinoid.
b)      Psoriasis- inflammatory and hyper proliferative nature of the disease. Use of topical vitamin D analogues, corticosteroids, dithranol, use of intravenous therapy in resistant cases.
c)      Alopecia: minoxidil, anti-androgens, antimicrobials and antineoplastic.

iii) Endocrine and Reproductive Drugs (Hormones and hormone antagonists)-4Hours
a)      Drug treatment of diabetes mellitus: insulin and oral hypoglycemic.
b)      Hormones of the pituitary and hypothalamus, drugs suppressing prolactin release.Vasopressin and analogues.
c)      Drugs used in thyroid diseases.
d)     Corticotrophin and adrenal steroids.
d)     Drugs affecting calcium homeostatic, Osteoporosis and Paget‟s disease. Use of calcitonin, bisphosphonates, oestrogen receptor modulators, vitamin D analogues, calcium.
e)      Hormone replacement therapy, Contraceptive drugs, oestrogens and progestogens.Mechanism of contraceptive action.
f)       Drugs affecting the uterus- uterine relaxants and stimulants.
g)      Anabolic / androgenic steroids – use and abuse.

iv)       Gastrointestinal drugs (4 Hours)
a)      Drugs for peptic ulcer disease-antacids, cytoprotective agents, H2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. Antibiotic treatment to eliminate H. pylori.
b)      Drugs for motility disorders- stimulants and antispasmodics.
c)      Drugs for nausea and vomiting –dopamine antagonists. Antistamines, anticholinergic and 5HT3 antagonists.
d)     Laxatives- bulking agents, stool softeners, stimulant and osmotic laxatives.
e)      Anti- microbial, immunosuppressive and anti- neoplastic agents.
f)       Agents‟ used for Biliary and Pancreatic Disease, pancreatic enzymes.

v)         Genitourinary drugs (4 Hours)
a)      Drugs for urinary incontinence-antichonergic, antidiuretic hormone analogues.
b)      Drugs for benign prostatic hypertrophy- blocker and 5-reductase inhibitors. Ant androgens and prostate cancer.
c)      Drugs for- erectile dysfunction- phosphodiesterase inhibitors, treatment of importotence, anti-microbial agents, immunosuppressive and anti-neoplastic agents.

vi)       Anti-inflammatory / musculoskeletal drugs (2 Hours)

a) Anti-inflammatory drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), glucocorticoids as anti-inflammatory agents, second-line antireheumatic drugs.

vii)     Drugs for Neurological diseases and psychotropic (CNS drugs)-10 Hours
a)      Analgesics: Narcotic and non-narcotic, local and central analgesia.
b)      Anesthetics: Local and general, inhalational and intravenous anesthetics.
c)      Anti-consultants.
d)     Hypnotics and sedatives: The barbiturates, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics and sedatives.
e)      Psychopharmacologic agents (e.g. antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic agents), stimulants (e.g. amphetamines).
f)       Antiparkinsonian drugs
g)      Skeletal muscle relaxants, neuromuscular blocking agents, ant glaucoma drugs, anti-inflammatory agents.
h)      Antimicrobial, immune- suppressive and antineoplastic drugs.

viii)   Respiratory Drugs (5 Hours)
a)      Decongestants, cough suppressant and expectorants, anti-microbial agents.
b)      Pharmacotherapy of asthma- bronchodilators, b-agonists, xanthine, anticholinergic, leukotriene receptor antagonists. Anti- inflammatory drugs-corticosteroids, cromoglycate, etc. use of longer acting b-agonists.
c)      Pharmacotherapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- chronic bronchitis, emphysema and smoking.
d)     Immunosuppressive and anti-neoplastic agents. ix) Clinical Toxicology (2 Hours)

Concepts of drug toxicology: Therapeutic index, adverse drug reactions, “predictable” versus unexpected toxic actions of drugs.

Teaching/learning methods      
Teaching will take the form of formal lectures, tutorials, video-aided practicals and invivo practicals using laboratory animals.

Teaching/learning methods      
The following items will be used for teaching
a)      Laboratory rats and mice,
b)      Syringes and oral cannulas,
c)      White cotton thread,
The necessary drugs, chemicals and reagents