Course Content and Outline
I) Lectures (30 Hours)
i) Anatomy and Physiology (3 hours)
a)Ocular Anatomy: Orbit, lids, conjunctiva, lymph nodes, lachrymal systems, cornea, anterior chamber, iris and pupil lens, vitreous, choroids and retina, Anatomy of extra ocular muscles including origin, course, insertion, innervations and blood supply, normal alignment.
b) Ocular physiology: Visual pathways, Ocular motor pathways, facial and trigeminal nerves, Autonomic pathways, papillary pathways, Aqueous humor physiology.
ii) Clinical process (2 Hours)
Focused history taking, basic examination with flashlight, slit-lamp examination, fundoscopy, visual fields by confrontation, summarized history, recording of clinical data, interpretation of findings, case presentation.
iii) Routine clinical procedures and investigations (3 hours)
Indications, limitations, potential complications, visual acuity, external inspection, papillary reflexes, ocular motility, direct ophthalmoscopy, papillary dilation, Anterior chamber depth assessment, Visual fields by confrontation (perimeter), IOP measurement (tonometry), Fluoresce in staining, Extra ocular motility, Neuroimaging: X-rays, CT scan, MRI, Ultra-sound, among others.
iv) Management Common ophthalmic disorders (25 hours)
a) Ocular trauma, blunt and penetrating injuries, orbital trauma and blow out fracture, burns and chemical injuries, ocular foreign bodies.
b) Red eye diffential diagnosis: Glaucoma, Anterior uveltis, keratitis, Conjunctivitis, Scleritis, Episcleritis, Adnexal disease, Sulrconjuctival hemorrhage, Pterygium, Keratoconjuctivitis, Sicca, Abnormal lid function, symptoms associated with the red eye and steps to diffentaite red eye. Indications for referral.
c) Eyelid diseases: Malpositions, inflammations, Infections, and tumours. Lachrymal system, lachrymal disease, congenital and acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, Dacrycycystitis. Orbital diseases, orbital cellulites. Thyroid disease, Pseudo tumor, Orbital tumours: Aetiology, measurement of proptosis, investigations in proptosis including radiological investigations.
d) Cataract: symptoms, lens examination and red reflex, lens abnormalities in systemic disease, cataract surgery, Artificial lenses.
e) Exophthalmia, vitamin A deficiency and its effect on the eye, WHO classification, community health aspects
f) Trachoma: causes, treatment, complications, SAFE strategy.
g) Glaucoma: Definition, risk factors, signs, and symptoms of primary open angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma, visual acuity and visual fields, IOP and ways of measurement, optic neuropathy in glaucoma, pharmacological and surgical treatment.
h) Amblyopic: strabismic, refractive form deprivation and occlusive.
i) Strabismus: classification, binocular functions, strabismus testing, corneal light reflex, cover/ uncover tests, causes, effects and basic of management.
j) Vitreoretinal disorders: symptoms, loss of vision, flashes, floaters, leucocorea, and fundus features of age-related macular degenerative, fund‟s features of important systemic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vassal occlusive disease, HIV /AIDS.
k) Cranial nerve palsies Myasthenia gravis.
l) Optic nerve diseases: papilloedema, papillitis, optic atrophy, visual field defects.
m) Neoplasms: Retinoblastoma, clinical presentation, treatment, differential diagnosis malignant melanoma, other intra-ocular tumors and metastasis.
n) Sudden loss of vision.
v)Health promotion in ophthalmic care (2 Hours)
a) Factors influencing ophthalmic care of individuals and community
b) Prevention of ophthalmic diseases and accidents
II) Tutorials (10 marks)
a) Taking history in eye care
b) Taking visual acuity
c) Foreign body in the eye
d) Clinical approach to a red eye
III) Practicals/Clinical (30 Hours)
This will be a clinical rotation in the eye clinic to participate in the management of various ophthalmic conditions
The methods to be used in administering this course shall include:
a) Theory type lecture presentations
b) Interactive tutorials including student presentation
c) Joint sessions with Clinicians (Surgery and Medical) with Histopathologists.
d) Clinical teaching in the Eye clinic
b) Practical Manuals/log books
c) Ophthalmic Charts/models
d) Snellen‟s chart Ophthalmoscope